Saturday, 19 Jun 2021

Introduction to Cosmetology Theory

Learning Objectives

After studying this chapter, you will able to:

  • Understand different cosmetology services
  • Explain the requirement of training and licensing
  • Describe license transfer, reciprocity, and endorsement
  • Discuss the role professional image
  • Define sanitation in cosmetology



 Is a general term that refers to professional careers in the field of personal beauty and grooming, such as hair styling, Skincare, makeup application, and nail treatment? This field includes a wide range of body pampering and beauty treatments for men, women and children. Peoples who perform these jobs must usually be licensed, and generally undergo specialized training at specialized schools or institutes.

They work in many different settings some people work out their homes or small shop, while others are on staff with upscale salons or spas.

Cosmetologists must memorize terminology associated with their specialty field. Like most other industries, cosmetologist should be well-versed in industry training to provide the best type of care for their clients.

Cosmetologist also are responsible for ensuring make-up application, hair styling or nails are exactly what the clients desires.

There are many different activities that cosmetologists do as part of their daily work, including cutting, styling and coloring of hair, facials, pedicures and manicures.


The art of beautifying the human body has been around for about as long as human themselves. Most scholars believe that the formal cosmetology field was established in Ancient Egypt, when women of the royal courts sought help styling their hair and applying various skin creams. These early professionals were also in many respects chemist, as many were responsible for actually creating the products they used. These jobs have standards services, and it often involves a lot of listening to the clients, making assessments about specific needs, and tailoring services accordingly.


Many of the most easily-recognizable cosmetology services involve hair care. Barbers and hairstylists make up the mainstay of this sector of the field, though shampooers, colorists, and other who work in hair salons usually also qualify. These people devote all or most of their workday to cutting, washing, and hair styling. Some services are relatively simple, like basic trims, but more complex jobs are hair color, perms, up-do’s and formal hair fixing, to name a few trend to make the work more demanding.


A range of skincare services are also included in the field. Facials, skin clearing treatments, and makeup services are some of the most common. Waxing and other hair removal services like eyebrow threading, electrolysis, and laser eradication also come in, as do specialty services like makeovers and skincare consulting for special events.


Manicurists and nail technicians are also usually considered cosmetologists. These professionals can do everything from basic nail polishing and shaping to the application of acrylic nails and intricate nail art. Manicures, pedicures, and cuticle treatments are all within their range of expertise.



 A cosmetologist, id often a lot harder than it seems. Most jurisdictions require professionals to attend specific beauty school programs before they can hold themselves out as expert. These training program are usually akin to professional schools. Sometimes aspiring cosmetologist can choose one focus are in hair care, for instance, or manicure services but in many places, they must qualify to do everything upfront.

Jurisdictional rules also set parameters on who, exactly, qualifies as a cosmetologist. In many places, anyone who works with another’s hair, skin, or nails must be licensed; in other, only those who perform more “serious’ services need to be credentialed. Shampooers, for instance, are considered cosmetology professionals in some places but not others.

                                                     JOB HAZARDS AND RISKS 

Depending on the environment, the active practice of cosmetology can present a number of health risks to professionals. Most of the services within the field involve regular exposure to a number of harsh chemicals like hair dyes, acrylic glues, and harsh hair removal creams. Breathing theses substance in a day in and day out can cause respiratory problems and other health concerns. Many salons place restrictions on how many services professional can perform within a day in order to restrict exposure; others require regular rotations in order to minimize extended periods of time in confined spaces. Many technicians will also wear face masks or other protective wear such as gloves to help protect their health.

The Cosmetologist

  A cosmetologist is s beauty specialist who is educated who is educated in treating the hair, skin and nails. A cosmetologist may care for a client, but may salon consult with clients and offer suggestions regarding flattering hairstyles, skincare options, and the best colors and proper application of cosmetics. The specialist with advanced skills may also offer therapeutic treatments and massages, and advise a client in hygienic practices as well as hair, skin or nail care between visits to the salon. State laws vary, but in most cases a cosmetologist must be specific years of age or older, must have graduated from a state approved cosmetology school or completed an apprenticeship, and must be licensed. To become licensed, one must prove his or her skills and must receive a passing grade on a written test. In certain states, a high school diploma, or its equivalency, is also required.

The cosmetologist may have few or many duties. He or she may specialize in a particular area or may be involved in overall customer care. A cosmetologist may cut hair, style hair or add hairpieces and weaves. He or she may also color, bleach, frost or condition hair, or add a tinted rinse to tome down bad color received at another shop or through inappropriate application of home color treatments. The cosmetologist chooses cosmetics that are appropriate for the client’s coloring and skin tone may apply them or teach the client how to do so. He or she may also shape, trim, pluck and color the eyebrows, or assist a client in the removal of unwanted facial hair. As for skin treatments, the cosmetologist  is charged with selecting, applying or recommending a mask, anti-age creams, exfoliate and moisturizers that best suit the client’s needs.

In the treatment of nails, a cosmetologist may clean the fingernails or toenail, treat cuticles, file and buff the nails, apply polish of apply artificial nails. He or she may also provide soaks or other treatments, such as conditioner or hardeners. Although considered an expert in the field of beauty, the cosmetologist may also be required to perform or share in less specialized duties. These are include care and cleaning of beauty implements and employee stations. He or she may also answer the phone, book appointments, file, keep records order product, and sign for deliveries.


A master cosmetologist is a cosmetologist who has fulfilled certain educational and work experience requirements. As a general rule, master cosmetologist must complete a regionally-approved cosmetology course, become licensed, work for at least a year, and fulfill some continuing educational requirements to ensure that he or she is current with information in the field of cosmetology. Once someone becomes a master cosmetologist, he or she has many more career opportunities.

One of the advantages of working as a master cosmetologist is that it is possible to work on hair, akin, or nails. Many people choose to work in a specific field after they are licensed, but they enjoy having their options open.

Because a master cosmetologist is more experienced is more experienced and better trained than some regular cosmetologist, he or she tend to be more employable. Some clients also actively seek out people with a master cosmetologist certification, to ensure that they can benefit from at least a year of experience in field.


Cosmetology licensing laws, and requirements vary state by state or country by country as do reciprocity and transfer regulations, renewal schedules, fees continuing education requirements.

The specific states’ licensing requirements can be found from several sources. One include complete contact information for each state’s licensing board, including an address, phone number, e-mail address and a map to the location. Every country governs the laws, rules, and regulations cosmetology.

Successful completion of the both parts of the exam will result in a cosmetology license issued by the state. Once a cosmetology license has been obtained, continuing education credit hours will have to be obtained between the time the license is issued and its expiration in order to quality for renewal.


A cosmetology license is authorization from a professional board that enables individuals to work in salons within their licensing state. To obtain a cosmetology license, specific requirements, as set forth by the state, must be met and one must pass an exam issued by the state’s board of cosmetology.

Depending on the state/country of residence, one will be required to obtain a certain number of hours of instruction at a cosmetology school before one can take an exam for issuance of a cosmetology license. In most states, salons are governed by a state board. The state/country board also issues and enforces the laws pertaining to operation of a salon, as well as issues proctored exams and licensing. Each states rules for licensing may vary, but will require some sort of formal training and instruction, as well as continuing education.

Once a cosmetology licensed has been obtained, continuing education credit hours will have to be obtained between the time the license is issued and its expiration in order to qualify for renewal. Some states issue licenses for two (2) years, but others may issue different licensing terms. Some states require further testing to obtain a managing of instructor’s cosmetology license, which enables and individual to also teach as a cosmetology school.

The following licenses are issued by the board to qualified individuals under the act:

  • Cosmetology Teacher
  • Limited practice teacher
  • Cosmetologist
  • Esthetician
  • Nail technician
  • Natural hair braider

Image: Pexels


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *