Implementation of Repair, Service and Maintenance Procedure
REPAIR – Restoration of a broken, damaged, or failed device, equipment, part, or property to an acceptable operating or usable condition or state.
TROUBLESHOOTING – is a method of finding the cause of a problem and correcting it. The ultimate goal of troubleshooting is to get the equipment back into operation. This is a very important job because the entire production operation may depend on the troubleshooter’s ability to solve the problem quickly and economically, thus returning the equipment to service.
GENERAL TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDELINES
The general guidelines for a good troubleshooter to follow are:
•Work safely and exercise safety precautions
The five-step troubleshooting process consists of the following:
1. Verify that a problem actually exists.
2. Isolate the cause of the problem.
3. Correct the cause of the problem.
4. Verify that the problem has been corrected.
5. Follow up to prevent future problems.
Within the four general guidelines previously mentioned, there are several action items that are important to the successful achievement of the goal of troubleshooting:
- VERIFY THAT SOMETHING IS ACTUALLY WRONG.
The troubleshooting process begins with symptom recognition. To troubleshoot, there must first be a problem. In this alternate approach to troubleshooting, the troubleshooter must first verify that there actually is a problem. A problem usually is indicated by a change in equipment performance or product quality. Verification of the problem will either provide you with indications of the cause if a problem actually exists or prevent the troubleshooter from wasting time and effort on “ghost” problems caused by the operator’s lack of equipment understanding. Do not simply accept a report that something is wrong without personally verifying the failure.
2. IDENTIFY AND LOCATE THE CAUSE OF THE TROUBLE.
Trouble is often caused by a change in the system. The troubleshooter should observe the equipment or system to get a first-hand impression of the trouble. During this observation, the troubleshooter should note all abnormal symptoms. To evaluate the equipment thoroughly and elaborate on the symptoms observed, the troubleshooter will probably need to examine the equipment documentation.
A panel graphic is a graphic representation of the system that is mounted on an equipment or system control panel. Although the panel is intended to provide the operator with a big picture of the operations,
A loop diagram is used to provide detailed mechanical information about a process. This diagram does not give significant electrical or instrumentation information.
PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAMS
A piping and instrumentation diagram (P&ID;) shows the functional layout of a fluid system and its piping, valves, and instrumentation as clearly and accurately as possible
Block diagrams are the simplest of all electrical diagrams. A block diagram illustrates the major components and electric or mechanical interrelations in block (square, rectangular, or other geometric figure) form. The lines between the blocks represent the connections between the systems or components. Each line may represent one wire or several wires. The purpose of a block diagram is to introduce the system as a whole, convey the general operation and arrangements of the major components, and show the normal order of progression of a signal or current flow
Wiring diagrams are mostly used when troubleshooting systems. They may be used in conjunction with schematic diagrams for component and wiring locations. Wiring diagrams show the relative position of various components of the equipment and how each conductor is connected in the circuit.
Schematic diagrams (often just called schematics) are drawings that show all the components in their proper electrical positions, but not necessarily in their proper physical locations. Schematic diagrams are very useful to the technician troubleshooting an electrical or electronic circuit
3. CORRECT THE PROBLEM.
It is very important to correct the cause of the problem, not just the effect or the symptom. This often involves replacing or repairing a part or making adjustments. Never adjust a process or piece of equipment to compensate for a problem and consider the job finished; correct the problem.
4. VERIFY THAT THE PROBLEM HAS BEEN CORRECTED.
Repeating the same check that originally indicated the problem can often do this. If the fault has been corrected, the system should operate properly.
During this verification, the following should be observed:
•Check all indications that relate to the repaired area.
•Perform a valve/switch line-up check to validate the integrity of the system.
•Using approved procedures, establish normal operating conditions and check equipment performance.
•Check for abnormal operation of all inputs and outputs to the repaired equipment.
5. FOLLOW UP TO PREVENT FURTHER TROUBLE.
Determine the underlying cause of the trouble. Suggest a plan to a supervisor that will prevent a future recurrence of this problem.
This may include the following:
•Changing the preventive maintenance schedule to help prevent failures.
•Recommend a different supplier if a replacement component is unsatisfactory.
•Conduct operator/maintenance training to raise awareness of the potential for problems.
•Complete proper documentation and troubleshooting log entries to aid in future troubleshooting of similar problems.
COMMON TOOLS/ EQUIPMENT USED IN REPAIR AND SERVICING
Activities required or undertaken to conserve as nearly, and as long, as possible the original condition of an asset or resource while compensating for normal wear and tear.