Monday, 20 Sep 2021

COGNITIVE THEORIES AND METACOGNITION

COGNITIVE THEORIES AND METACOGNITION
● Main focus is in memory – the storage and source of information.


● Paying more attention to learning the thought process.
● Believing in inconspicuous behavior.
▪ MEANINGFUL RECEPTION THEORY
= developed by DAVID AUSUBEL
= Meaningful learning happens when new experiences are related to what the student already knows. This can happen through reception, rote learning, and discovery learning.
▪ DISCOVERY LEARNING THEORY/INQUIRY METHOD OR THEORY OF INSTRUCTIONS
= built by JEROME BRUNER
= Learning is more intriguing to learners when they have the opportunity to discover it in their own way, in relation to concepts or actively seeking solutions to a problem.
= An approach to teaching where students interact with their environment by exploring and manipulating things, fighting questions and controversies or doing experiments. The idea that students are easier to remember concepts by discovering them in their own way.
= Enactive Representation – confined to the development of motor capacities or knowing how to make / do something.
= Iconic Representation – a process of creating thought account images for certain objects or events. This has reduced the development of our sensory capacities.
= Symbolic Representation – The highest form of representation, because it emphasizes the development of intellectual capacity.
▪ INSIGHT LEARNING/PROBLEM SOLVING THEORY
= compiled by WOLFGANG KOHLER
= Problem Solving – the ability to recognize the true nature of the situation; an imaginative power to see and understand immediately.
= Having a vision is a gradual process of exploration, learning, and building understanding / perception until a solution is found.
▪ INFORMATION PROCESSING THEORY
= developed by RICHARD ATKINSON and RICHARD SHIFFRIN
= The individual learns when information is encoding, functions and storing information (store), and captures it when necessary (retrieval).
● STAGES OF HUMAN MEMORY
= Sensory Memory – an information storage with an exact stimuli copy for a short period of time.
= Short-Term Memory (STM) – it has two functions: (1) It processes information by incorporating new information into existing information, (2) Temporarily stored information for the use of the information studying. It has less capacity, but information is lost, if we don’t do any concrete way to keep information in our brains.
= Long-Term Memory (LTM – Is a warehouse of knowledge or data bank of knowledge. This is a repository of stored information; it is also a permanent storage of information.
● CAUSES OF FORGETTING
= Retrieval Failure – due to the inability to think information.
= Decay Theory – Information stored in LTM will gradually disappear when it is not used.
= Interference Theory – forgetting LTM due to the influence of other studies.
▪ TRANSFER OF LEARNING and COMMULATIVE LEARNING
= built by ROBERT GAGNE
● TRANSFER OF LEARNING – ′′ TRANSFER ′′ – when something you have already learned influences the new material.

TYPES OF TRANSFER:
= Lateral Transfer – happens when an individual can make a new Task about the same level.
= Vertical Transfer – happens when individuals can learn more advanced or complex skills / skills.
= Specific Transfer – when a certain skill, fact or rule is applied to a similar situation.
= General Transfer – application of principles previously learned in different situations.

Image: Pexels

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